Step 1 - Arrival to Elazığ and Check in Hotel

After a tiring trip, it is time to relax in a nice and comfortable place. Our logistics team will welcome you in airport or bus station and accompany you to the hotel you will be staying in.


Step 2 - Registration

On the first day of our conference, all observers / advisors and delegates need to pin a name tag on. Badges, folders and gifts will be given to all our guests by our logistics and organisation departments.


Step 3 - Sightseeing Tour, Elazığ

Before starting to the conference, it is a big pleasure for us to get you have a closer sight to Elazığ which is a very historical city in the eastern part of Turkey.  The Kültür Park, Fırat University and The Harput Castle will be our splendid destinations to visit!

Picture from Facebokk/Kültür Park

Step 4 - Opening Ceremony

The Opening Ceremony of MUNEF 2017 is one of the most exhilarating sessions of the conference. It is time to get ready for the conference by watching many informative videos and  getting inspired by distinguished speakers.   

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Step 5 - Sessions and Debates

Important Terms of Model United Nations

Terms and Topics:

1- Roll Call

2- Opening Speech

3- Motion

4- Point

5- Floor

6- Yield

7- Speakers' List

8- Caucus

9- Placard

10- Working Paper

11- Resolution

12- Voting

13-  Position Paper



1- Roll Call

1- Roll Call:

In the beginning part of the each session, chairs or directors of the committees take the roll in order to see the delegates taking place in the house. When a delegate hears his or her countries' name, he or she may answer the call as "present" or "present and voting."


2- Opening Speech


Prepare your opening speeches before the conference. All delegates make their speech usually in the first or second session!

2- Opening Speech:

All delegates are expected to make their opening speeches. Usually opening speeches last one or one and half minutes . Basically it depends on the committees and number of the delegates in the house. Opening speeches are vitally important for delegates since it is the very moment that delegate can speak freely and express his or her countries' current polices and important points.

3 - Motion


It is a demand made by delegates to state a point (Point of Personal Privilege, Point of Parliamentary Inquiry and Point of Order) or  in order to start a caucus, unmoderated caucus , to adjourn a session, to introduce a draft resolution or working paper, to start the voting procedure.


The delegate of Austria would like to raise a motion ...

The delegate of Spain motions ...

The delegate of New Zealand gives a motion ...

Motion to move into voting procedures

Sometimes delegates feel that there is nothing to say about a resolution anymore, however debating time has not elapsed yet. Now the delegate may use this motion. If there are no objections the house will directly move into voting procedures.

Motion to extend debating time

This motion is used when a delegate feels that there is not been enough time to discuss a resolution. When debating time has elapsed delegates may use this motion. The Chair will then decide if this is in order or not.

Motion to call for a division of the house

Sometimes the difference in number of votes in favour and against a resolution or an amendment is very small. A delegate may use this motion then. There will be a recount. Should the difference still be marginal, every country will be called up and the delegates will have to state their vote again.

Motion to table the resolution

If a delegate feels that a resolution is so bad, that it is not worth discussing it, he may raise this motion.


Note: This part is taken from http://munom.eu/pages/all-about-munom/course-of-debate.php

4 - Point


During debate, several points and motions can arise. In general, these can never interrupt a speaker. If a delegate wishes to make a point he is supposed to raise his placard and state his point. The delegate will then be recognised by the Chair, and the delegate will rise and state his point. If other delegates agree with your motion they will shout "Second!" A delegate that does not agree with your motion may shout "Objection!"


Note: This part is taken from http://munom.eu/pages/all-about-munom/course-of-debate.php


Point of order

If a mistake is made during a debate, by the Chair or by a delegate it is in order for a delegate to use this point.

Point of information to the Chair

This is a question from a delegate directed to the Chair, when something is unclear during debate, the delegate may use this point.

Point of information

A point of information is used as a question. It is directed to the speaker who at that moment has the floor.

Points of information are always questions concerning the contents of the debate.

Point of personal privilege

This point is the only point that may interrupt a delegate or the Chair while they are speaking. You would make use it if there is an audibility problem.

Point of parliamentary inquiry

If some kind of confusion occurs and the delegate is not sure what to do next during the debate he may use this point. The delegate could, for example, ask whether it is in order to abstain on an amendment.

Calls for the orders of the day

During a debate delegates sometimes tend to speak about things that are irrelevant to the actual topic. The delegate can then use this point to ask the Chair to return to the actual agenda.


5 - Floor


Essentially means the opportunity to speak, or it can denote the subject matter that is currently debated. If someone “has the floor”, it means they are allowed to speak. If a resolution is “on the floor”, it has been formally introduced, it is being debated and it will be voted on.


Note: This part is taken from the Education University of Hong Kong;


In another words,
The Floor is a metaphorical area, which
delegates can obtain to be able to speak on a
resolution or clause.

“Delegate you may take the floor and speak on the


Note: This part is taken from the document By Uday Mehra, International School of Amsterdam


On the floor:

At a Model UN conference, when a working paper or draft resolution is first written, it may not be discussed in debate. After it is approved by the Director and introduced by the committee, it is put "on the floor" and may be discussed.

Note: This part is taken from unausa.org


speech desk

6 - Yield

Yield – is what you do with the remainder of your speaking time.


Yielding essentially means giving the rest of your time to someone. You may yield to other delegation, to questions (if you are willing to answer them), or to the Chairperson (if you have finished speaking or you have no more time anyway).


Note: This part is taken from the Education University of Hong Kong;


To yield the floor


Yielding is where a delegate gives the floor to
either another delegate or gives the floor back to
the chair.
“Is it in order for the delegate to yield the floor to the
delegate of Japan?”


Note: This part is taken from the document By Uday Mehra, International School of Amsterdam

7- Speaker's List

A list that determines the order in which delegates will speak.

Note: This part is taken from Quizlet


Speaker’s List
The Speaker’s List is held by the chair and
determines which delegates will speak.
It also serves as an account of how many times
each delegate has spoken.


Note: This part is taken from the document by Uday Mehra, International School of Amsterdam


In the case that no delegates would like to speak on an agenda topic, chairs can choose delegates randomly to speak by adding delegates in Speaker's List. All delegates are strongly advised to prepare their speeches regarding agenda topics before the conference.

8- Caucus


A break from a formal debate in which countries can informally discuss a topic. There are two types of caucus;  Moderated caucus and Unmoderated caucus.

Note: This part is taken from Quizlet



During the Moderated and Unmoderated caucus, delegates may need a laptop while working and debating on working paper or draft resolution. Delegates are advised to bring a laptop to the sessions.

Moderated Caucus: A type of caucus in which delegates remain seated and the Chair calls on them one at a time to speak for a short period of time, enabling  free exchange of opinions than would be possible in formal debate.


Unmoderated Caucus: A type of caucus in which delegates leave their seats to mingle and speak freely. Enables the free sharing of ideas to an extent not possible in formal debate or even a moderated caucus. Frequently used to sort countries into blocs and to write working papers and draft resolutions.


Note: This part is taken from unausa.org


9- Placard


A piece of cardstock with a country's name on it that a delegate raises in the air to signal to the Chair that he or she wishes to speak.

Note: This part is taken from unausa.org



Placards and badges are vitally important for the delegates. Delegates use their placards in each session in order to be recognized by the chair. Badges will provide you enterence MUNEF areas during the conference. All delegates are strongly advised to look after their placards and badges and bringing  them to the all the sessions.

Usage  of the Placards:


When conducting the vote

The motion will now be put to the vote.


Will all those in favor of the motion/the amendment/the resolution please raise their placard.


Will all those opposed to/against the resolution please raise their placard.


Are there any abstentions?/ Will all those abstaining please raise their placard.


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10 - Working Paper

Working Paper – a document that is authored by one or more delegates, presented to all delegations, and which helps the work of the Committee in some way. It does not have to be in a resolution format, it can be a list of ideas; nevertheless, a good working paper provides a backbone for a resolution.


Note: This part is taken from the Education University of Hong Kong;


Additional Resource: bestdelegate.com


Making the Most of Working Papers in Model UN


11 -Resolution

Resolution – is the final product of the Committee. It is a document that says how you want to change the world; what actions you want to take; how you are using your authority as a body. A resolution is created during the Committee sessions and in the end you vote on whether to implement it or not. Resolution has to be in a specific format, it is made of clauses and it has two main parts:


• Preamble / Preambulatory clauses – the introduction, in which you state upon what principles you are acting (or what values you are upholding with the resolution), what events you are condemning or congratulating, and/or what other documents were used as a basis for this resolution. Preambulatory clauses cannot be amended or divided out of a resolution.


• Operative clauses – these are the sentences that describe the actions you want to take (or want other organizations to take). You may directly order something to the bodies you have authority over, or urge independent organizations to take some action that is in their power. You may create new bodies, or terminate old ones. In operative clauses, you should also explain the financing mechanisms of your plan, as well as the enforcement mechanism it will use.


Clause – a paragraph in a resolution describing one specific guiding principle (perambulatory) or action to be taken (operative).


Sponsors – are the delegations that author a resolution, and are committed to supporting it. Signatories – are the delegations that wish to see the draft resolution formally debated during the Committee session. They do not have to agree with the resolution; they just want to see it on the floor.


Amendment – is a change to the operative clauses of a draft resolution (after it is introduced but before it gets voted on. Just a reminder, preamble cannot be amended. There are two types of amendments: • Friendly – all the sponsors agree to it and it becomes incorporated into the draft resolution automatically • Unfriendly – not all the sponsors agree with it; therefore it will get debated and voted upon, before it can be incorporated into the resolution.


You can download a good example for working paper for free.

Click to Download Sample Resolution


Additional Resource: bestdelegate.com


Model UN Made Easy: How to Write a Resolution



12 - Voting

Vote: A time at which delegates indicate whether they do or do not support a proposed action for the committee.


Note: This part is taken from unausa.org

When concluding debate and moving to the vote

The debate is now closed. We will move into voting procedures. All points are out of order.


Upon entering voting procedure, the chamber will be sealed and silent; delegates may not enter or leave. All points and motions are out of order unless directly related to the execution of voting. 9. Roll Call Votes:
The Chair will call every non-observant delegation to vote on substantive matters. A delegation may answer “abstain”, “pass”, “in favour” or “against”.


Delegates that wish to explain their vote may add “with reasons” after voting in favour, against or abstain. If a delegation passes it shall be asked for their vote again after all countries have voted. 11. Voting on Procedural Matters
All Member-states present must vote upon all procedural matters (i.e. one may only abstain when voting on a resolution or amendment.)


Note: This part is written by Toyuko Igarashi

During voting, note-passing is suspended and going outside of the committee is not allowed. The administrative staff counts the votes and informs the chairs. Delegates cannot have conversations during the voting procedure. Only member states can vote in MUN. NGOs can make speeches and contribute to amendments, but they cannot vote on resolutions (except at the Advisory Panel). When delegates are voting, they have 3 options: in favor, against or abstaining.

  1. Chair announces that the debate time has elapsed and calls for the voting procedures.
  2. Security staff seals the doors and the administrative staff suspends note-passing and take their voting positions.
  3. Chair asks all those delegations in favor; adminisrative staff count the votes and inform the chair.
  4. Chair asks all those delegations against; administrative staff count the votes and inform the chair.
  5. Chair asks all those delegations abstaining; adminisrative staff count the votes and inform the chair.
  6. A total is counted. If a majority of the votes are in favor, then the resolution passes; if the majority of the votes are against, then the resolution fails.

Note: This part is taken from hismun.org


13- Position Paper

The best position paper will be awarded by MUNEF 2017!


A Position paper includes the policy of your assigned country. MUNEF2017 is expected all delegates to write position papers one month ago from the conference. Position papers are being auxiliary to get ready before the conference. A position paper is the combination of your assigned country’s policy and the agenda. A brief explanation of the main problem and its effects to your assigned country is given in a position paper.Keep in mind that a position paper is indicator of your researches.


Note: This part is taken from MUNEF 2017 DELEGATE & ADVISOR'S HANDBOOK


How to Write a Position Paper

Writing a position paper might appear to be a daunting task, especially for new delegates. But with enough research, you will find that writing a position paper will be easy and useful.

Position papers are usually one to one-and-a-half pages in length. Your position paper should include a brief introduction followed by a comprehensive breakdown of your country's position on the topics that are being discussed by the committee. A good position paper will not only provide facts but also make proposals for resolutions.

Many conferences will ask for specific details in a position paper, so be sure to include all the required information. Most conferences will provide delegates a background guide to the issue. Usually, the background guide will contain questions to consider. Make sure that your position paper answers these questions.

Position Paper Tips

Keep it simple. To communicate strongly and effectively, avoid flowery wording and stick to uncomplicated language and sentence structure.

Make it official. Try to use the seal of your country or create an "official" letterhead for your position paper. The more realistic it looks, the more others will want to read it.

Get organized. Give each separate idea or proposal its own paragraph. Make sure each paragraph starts with a topic sentence.

Cite your sources. Use footnotes or endnotes to show where you found your facts and statistics. If you are unfamiliar with bibliographic form, look up the Modern Language Association (MLA) guidelines at your school's library.

Read and reread. Leave time to edit your position paper. Ask yourself if the organization of the paper makes sense and double-check your spelling and grammar.

Speech! Speech! Do you plan to make an opening statement at your conference? A good position paper makes a great introductory speech. During debate, a good position paper will also help you to stick to your country's policies.

Let the bullets fly. Try not to let your proposals become lost in a sea of information. For speechmaking, create a bulleted list of your proposals along with your most important facts and statistics so that you will not lose time looking for them during debate.

A good position paper will include:

A brief introduction to your country and its history concerning the topic and committee;

How the issue affects your country;

Your country's policies with respect to the issue and your country's justification for these policies;

Quotes from your country's leaders about the issue;

Statistics to back up your country's position on the issue;

Actions taken by your government with regard to the issue;

Conventions and resolutions that your country has signed or ratified;

UN actions that your country supported or opposed;

What your country believes should be done to address the issue;

What your country would like to accomplish in the committee's resolution; and

How the positions of other countries affect your country's position.

Note: This part is taken from unausa.org https://goo.gl/ffzqV2


Sample Position Paper


Useful Phrases to be used by the Chair


When asking the house to be quiet

The house will come to order.

Will the house please come to order!


When starting the debate

The Chair calls upon the main submitter to read the operative clauses to the house.

The house has heard the motion.Is there a second?

The Chair sets a debate time of 20 minutes open debate/

10 minutes for and 10 minutes against the motion.

The delegate of France/the main submitter has the floor.

All points are out of order until the delegate has finished speaking.


When recognizing someone to speak

The Chair recognizes the delegate of Russia. To what point do you rise?

Please rise and state your point (of information/order).


When the question is not clearly stated

Please state your point in the form of a question.

The speaker appears not to have heard/ understood your question. Will you please repeat/rephrase your question.


When asking for further points

Are there any further points on the floor? Are there any further points of information to this speaker?


When dealing with a point of order

There’s a point of order on the floor. Please rise and state your point.

Your point is (not) well taken.


When asking a speaker to conclude his speech

Will the speaker please make his concluding remarks.


Useful Phrases to be used by the Chair


When concluding debate time

Debate time for/against the motion/the amendment has been exhausted/has expired.

Debate time has expired. Will the speaker please yield the floor.


When extending debate time

The Chair proposes an extension of debate time by 5 minutes for and 5 minutes against the motion.


When concluding debate and moving to the vote

The debate is now closed. We will move into voting procedures. All points are out of order.


If there is a point of order during voting

Does your point of order pertain to the conduct of the voting?


When conducting the vote

The motion will now be put to the vote.

Will all those in favor of the motion/the amendment/the resolution please raise their placard.

Will all those opposed to/against the resolution please raise their placard.

Are there any abstentions?/ Will all those abstaining please raise their placard.


When announcing the result

The motion /amendment has been carried/passed by X votes to Y with Z abstentions.

The motion/ amendment has failed/been defeated by Y votes to X with Z abstentions.


Note: This part is taken from